# Predictive Ratio Descriptions

Description of financial ratios

Synnax Data Scientists are tasked with creating machine learning models which predict 17 financial statement indicators, for each company in the dataset, for the next quarter.

Synnax ranks these predictions based on their ability to predict a "validation" portion of the dataset. The predictions that score above a certain threshold are aggregated and used to calculate 22 forward-looking financial ratio predictions:

## Liquidity Ratios

Liquidity ratios measure a company's ability to meet its short-term obligations using its most liquid assets.

#### Current Ratio = Current assets ÷ Current liabilities

*Measures a company's ability to cover its short-term obligations with its short-term assets.*

#### Quick Ratio = (Cash + Short-term marketable investments + Receivables) ÷ Current liabilities

*Evaluates a company's ability to meet its short-term liabilities with its most liquid assets, excluding inventory.*

#### Cash Ratio = (Cash + Short-term marketable investments) ÷ Current liabilities

*Assesses a company's ability to pay off short-term liabilities using only cash and cash equivalents.*

## Asset Quality Ratios

Asset quality ratios assess how effectively a company manages its assets, particularly in converting assets into revenue or cash.

#### Receivables Turnover Ratio = Total revenue ÷ Average receivables

*Indicates how efficiently a company collects its receivables by measuring the frequency with which receivables are converted into cash during a period.*

#### Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods sold ÷ Average inventory

*Measures how efficiently a company manages its inventory by calculating how often inventory is sold and replaced.*

#### Payables Turnover Ratio = Purchases ÷ Average trade payables

*Measures how efficiently a company pays its suppliers by calculating the rate at which trade payables are settled over a period.*

## Profitability Ratios

Profitability ratios evaluate a company's ability to generate profit relative to its revenue, assets, or equity.

#### Gross Profit Margin = Gross profit ÷ Total revenue

*Shows the percentage of revenue that exceeds the cost of goods sold, indicating the efficiency in producing goods.*

#### Operating Profit Margin = Operating profit ÷ Total revenue

*Reflects the percentage of revenue left after covering operating expenses, highlighting operational efficiency.*

#### Pretax Margin = Earnings before tax but after interest ÷ Total revenue

*Measures profitability before taxes and after interest, showing the percentage of revenue remaining after all expenses except taxes.*

#### Net Profit Margin = Net income ÷ Total revenue

*Indicates the percentage of revenue that becomes net income, reflecting overall profitability after all expenses.*

#### Operating Return on Assets (OROA) = Operating income ÷ Average total assets

*Measures how efficiently a company's assets generate operating income.*

#### Return on Assets (ROA) = Net income ÷ Average total assets

*Evaluates how effectively a company uses its assets to generate profit.*

#### Return on Equity (ROE) = Net income ÷ Average shareholders’ equity

*Assesses a company’s ability to generate profits from its shareholders’ equity.*

#### Return on Invested Capital (pre-tax) = Earnings before interest and taxes ÷ (Average Interest-bearing debt + Average Shareholders’ equity)

*Measures the return generated on capital invested in the business before taxes.*

#### Tax Burden = Net income ÷ Earnings before taxes

*Shows the proportion of pre-tax income that is retained after taxes, reflecting the impact of taxation on profitability.*

#### Interest Burden = Earnings before taxes ÷ Earnings before interest and taxes

*Indicates the proportion of earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) that remains after interest expenses, reflecting the impact of interest costs on profitability.*

#### EBIT Margin = Earnings before interest and taxes ÷ Total revenues

*Measures the operating performance of a company before interest and taxes, reflecting operating efficiency.*

## Solvency Ratios

Solvency ratios gauge a company's capacity to meet its long-term debt obligations and sustain operations over the long term.

#### Financial Leverage Ratio (Equity Multiplier) = Total assets ÷ Shareholders’ equity

*Shows the extent to which a company uses equity to finance its assets, indicating financial leverage.*

#### Debt-to-Assets Ratio = Total debt ÷ Total assets

*Assesses the proportion of a company’s assets financed by debt, indicating financial risk.*

#### Debt-to-Equity Ratio = Total debt ÷ Total shareholders’ equity

*Measures the relative proportion of debt and equity used to finance a company’s assets.*

#### Debt-to-Capital Ratio = Total debt ÷ (Total debt + Total shareholders’ equity)

*Reflects the percentage of a company's capital structure that is financed by debt.*

#### Interest Coverage Ratio = Earnings before interest and taxes ÷ Interest payments

*Indicates how easily a company can pay interest on its outstanding debt, reflecting its ability to service debt and financial stability.*

Last updated